#3 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:47 AM

Battle of Ain Jalut
Part of the Mongol raids in Palestine
Date September 3, 1260
Location Ain Jalut, Palestine
Result Egyptian Mamluk victory
Egyptian Mamluks Mongols
Cilician Armenians
Saif ad-Din Qutuz,
Baibars C * Kitbuqa +
About 20,000[1] About 20,000[1]
Casualties and losses
heavy heavy
v • d • e
The Mongol Invasions
Central Asia – Georgia and Armenia – Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend – Bilär) – Rus' – Anatolia (Köse Dağ) – Europe (Legnica – Mohi) – Baghdad – Korea – India – Japan (Bun'ei – Kōan) – Vietnam (Bạch Đằng) – China (Xiangyang – Yamen) – Burma (Ngasaunggyan – Pagan) – Syria – Palestine (Ain Jalut)

The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath") took place on September 3, 1260 between the Egyptian Mamluks and the Mongols in Palestine, in the Jezreel Valley in Galilee, along the northern part of what today is known as the West Bank.

This battle is considered by many historians to be of great macro-historical importance, as it marked the highwater of Mongol conquests, and the first time they had ever been decisively defeated. After previous defeats, the Mongols had always returned and avenged the loss, but the Battle of Ain Jalut marked the first occasion on which they were unable to do so. The Mongol Ilkhanate leader Hulagu Khan never was able to advance into Egypt, and the Khanate he established in Persia was only able to defeat the Mamluks once in subsequent expeditions, being able to do nothing further than briefly reoccupying Syria and parts of Palestine for a few months in 1300.

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#4 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:47 AM

Preceding events

Once Mongke Khan became Great Khan in 1251, he immediately set out to implement his grandfather Genghis Khan's plan for world empire. To lead the task of subduing the nations of the West, he selected his brother, another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, Hulagu Khan.

Compiling the army took five years, and it was not until 1256 that Hulagu was prepared to begin the invasions. Operating from the Mongol base in Persia, Hulagu proceeded south. Mongke Khan had ordered good treatment for those who yielded without resistance, and destruction for those who did not. In this way Hulagu and his army had conquered some of the most powerful and longstanding dynasties of the time. Other countries in the Mongols' path submitted to Mongol authority, and contributed forces to the Mongol army. By the time that the Mongols reached Baghdad, their army included Cilician Armenians, and even some Frankish forces from the submitted Principality of Antioch. The Hashshashin in Persia fell, the 500-year-old Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad was destroyed (see Battle of Baghdad (125), and so too fell the Ayyubid dynasty in Damascus. Hulagu's plan was to then proceed southwards through Palestine towards Egypt, to confront the last major Islamic power, the Mamluk Sultanate.

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#6 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:50 AM

Mongol envoys to Egypt

In 1260, Hulagu sent envoys to Qutuz in Cairo, demanding his surrender:

"From the King of Kings of the East and West, the Great Khan. To Qutuz the Mamluk, who fled to escape our swords. You should think of what happened to other countries and submit to us. You have heard how we have conquered a vast empire and have purified the earth of the disorders that tainted it. We have conquered vast areas, massacring all the people. You cannot escape from the terror of our armies. Where can you flee? What road will you use to escape us? Our horses are swift, our arrows sharp, our swords like thunderbolts, our hearts as hard as the mountains, our soldiers as numerous as the sand. Fortresses will not detain us, nor arms stop us. Your prayers to God will not avail against us. We are not moved by tears nor touched by lamentations. Only those who beg our protection will be safe. Hasten your reply before the fire of war is kindled. Resist and you will suffer the most terrible catastrophes. We will shatter your mosques and reveal the weakness of your God and then we will kill your children and your old men together. At present you are the only enemy against whom we have to march."

Qutuz responded, however, by killing the envoys and displaying their heads on Bab Zuweila, one of the gates of Cairo.

The power dynamic was then changed, due to an internal situation in the Mongol Empire. The Great Khan Mongke had died, and Hulagu and other senior Mongols returned home to decide upon his successor. A potential Great Khan, Hulagu took the majority of his army with him, and left a much smaller force, only around one or two tumens (10,000-20,000 men) under his best general, the Christian Turk[2] Kitbuqa Noyan.[3] Kitbuqa's force occupied the captured territories in Syria, and also proceeded south through Palestine.

The Mamluk Sultan Qutuz at that time allied with a fellow Mamluk, Baibars, who wanted to defend Islam after the Mongols captured Damascus and most of Sham.

The Mongols, for their part, attempted to form a Franco-Mongol alliance with (or at least, demand the submission of) the remnant of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, now centered on Acre, but Pope Alexander IV forbade this, and Julian of Sidon caused an incident which resulted in the death of one of Kitbuqa's grandsons. Angered, Kitbuqa sacked Sidon. The Barons of Acre, though they still regarded the Mamluks as a threat, also saw the Mongols as the more immediate menace, and so the Crusaders opted for a position of cautious neutrality between the two forces. In an unusual move, they agreed that the Egyptian Mamluks could march north through their territories unmolested, and camp to resupply near Acre. Qutuz then took advantage of the relatively smaller Mongol force under Kitbuqa, and engaged them at Galilee.

[edit] The battle

Both Mamluk and Mongol armies encamped in the Holy Land in July 1260. The bulk of the Mamluks were a force specifically prepared to deal with Mongol tactics. Many of them were Turkic or Circassian tribesmen purchased in Constantinople by the Sultan of Egypt and trained at the Mamluk headquarters on an island in the Nile. They were not only great horsemen themselves, but were fami[tony blair] with steppe warfare and with Mongol tactics and weapons. After a time, Egypt essentially existed to support a military force.

They finally met at Ain Jalut on September 3, with both sides numbering about 20,000 men. The Mamluks drew out the Mongol cavalry with a feigned retreat, but were almost overwhelmed by the savage Mongol attack. Qutuz rallied his troops for a successful counterattack, along with cavalry reserves hidden in the nearby valleys. The Mongols were forced to retreat, and Kitbuqa was captured and executed. Mamluk heavy cavalrymen were clearly able to beat the Mongols in close combat, something that no one had previously done.

The Battle of Ain Jalut is notable for being the earliest known battle where explosive cannons (midfa in Arabic) were used. These explosive cannons were employed by the Mamluk Egyptians in order to frighten the Mongol horses and cavalry and cause disorder in their ranks. The explosive gunpowder compositions of these cannons were later described in Arabic military manuals from the 14th century.[4]

[edit] Aftermath

On the way back to Cairo after the victory at Ain Jalut, Baibars betrayed and killed Qutuz on a hunting expedition, and became sultan himself. His successors would go on to capture the last of the Crusader states in Palestine by 1291. The Mongols were again beaten at the First Battle of Homs less than a year later, and completely expelled from Syria.

Internecine conflict prevented Hulagu Khan from being able to bring his full power against the Mamluks to avenge the pivotal defeat at Ain Jalut. Berke Khan, the Khan of the Kipchak Khanate in Russia, had converted to Islam, and watched with horror as his cousin destroyed the Abbasid Caliph, the spiritual head of Islam. Muslim historian Rashid al-Din quoted Berke as sending the following message to Mongke Khan, protesting the attack on Baghdad (not knowing Mongke had died in China): "he has sacked all the cities of the Muslims, and has brought about the death of the Caliph. With the help of God I will call him to account for so much innocent blood." [5]. The Mamluks, learning through spies that Berke was both a Muslim and not fond of his cousin, were careful to nourish their ties to him and his Khanate.

After the Mongol succession was finally settled, with Kublai as the last Great Khan, Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, and massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge Ain Jalut. However, Berke Khan initiated a series of raids in force which lured Hulagu north away from the Holy Land to meet him. Hulagu suffered severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire.

Hulagu was only able to send a small army of two tumens in his only attempt to attack the Mamluks after Ain Jalut, and it was repulsed. Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line.

After Hulagu, later Khans would attempt again to conquer the Muslim lands, and many battles were fought. In 1303 the Mamluks fought the Mongols for a final time and defeated them at the Battle of Shaqhab. The Mamluk Sultanate would rule the Middle East for 250 years until Selim the Grim and the Ottoman Empire put an end to their independence. Berke Khan and his descendants would rule Russia for another 220 years until the Grand Duke of Moscow finally broke their hold at the Great Standing on the Ugra River in 1480. The shortest-lived of the dynasties was that of Hulagu Khan; his line ruled parts of Southwest Asia for only 91 years. The Ilkhanate established by him was overthrown in 1353.

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#7 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:50 AM

Möngke Khan

Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: 蒙哥; pinyin: Mēnggē; c. 1208 – 1259), was the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire from 1251 to 1259. He was the son of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki, brother of Hulagu and Kublai Khan, and a grandson of Genghis Khan.

Möngke is noted as participating in the European campaign of 1236-1242, in the campaign against the Kypchaks and Maghas, the destruction of Kiev, and the assault of Hungary. In the summer of 1241, before the premature end of the campaign, Möngke returned home.

After the death of the third Great Khan, Güyük, Möngke found himself the champion of the factions of Genghis' descendants who aimed to supplant the branch of Ögedei. Batu, the senior male of the family, had almost come to open warfare with Güyük in 1248, the khan's early death precluding this. Batu joined forces with Tolui's widow to outmaneuver the regent, Ögedei's widow Oghul Qaimish. Batu called a kurultai in Siberia in 1250, which was protested as not being in Mongolia proper. However, Batu ignored the opposition, had his brother Berke call a kurultai within Mongolia, and elected Möngke khan in 1251.

Realizing they had been outmaneuvered, the Ögedeiid faction attempted to overthrow Möngke under the pretext of paying him homage, but their conspiracy was clumsy and easily avoided. Oghul Qaimish was sewn up into a sack and drowned.

Möngke, as khan, seemed to take much more seriously the legacy of world conquest he had inherited than did Güyük. He concerned himself more with the war in China, outflanking the Song Dynasty through the conquest of Yunnan in 1254 and an invasion of Indochina, which allowed the Mongols to invade from north, west, and south. Taking command personally late in the decade, he captured many of the fortified cities along the northern front. These actions ultimately rendered the conquest a matter of time. He dispatched his brother Hulagu to the southwest, an act which was to expand the Mongol Empire to the gates of Egypt. European conquest was neglected due to the primacy of the other two theaters, but Möngke's friendliness with Batu ensured the unity of empire.

However, while conducting the war in China at Fishing Town in modern-day Chongqing, Möngke died nearby the site of the siege on August 11, 1259. There are several different accounts as to how he perished. Generally recorded as killed in action by cannon shot from Song Chinese artillery, he's also reported to have been killed by an arrow shot from a Chinese archer during the siege. Other accounts claim that he died of dysentery or even a cholera epidemic. In any case, his death forced Hülegü along with his top general Guo Kan, to abort his campaign in Syria and Egypt to engage the tenacious Southern Song, and would ultimately cause a civil war that destroyed the unity and invincibility of the Mongol Empire.

In popular folklore, famous Chinese novelist Jin Yong dramatized the death of Mongke Khan in his famous Condor Trilogy series (The Return of the Condor Heroes, 1959), which describes a melancholic Southern Song warrior by the name Yang Guo (Chinese: 楊過; pinyin: Yänggūo) as the unwilling hero who fired the shot that killed the great Khan. Nevertheless, Mongke was the only Great Khan to have ever been killed in action.

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#8 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:51 AM

Hulagu Khan


Hulagu with his Kerait queen Doquz Khatun
Reign 1217 - 1265
Died 8 February 1265
Buried Lake Urmia
Consort Dokuz Khatun
Father Tolui
Mother Sorghaghtani Beki

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chagatai/Persian: ہلاکو - Halaku; Arabic:هولاكو; c. 1217 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. He was a grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Arik Boke, Mongke and Kublai Khan. Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia. Under his leadership, the Mongols destroyed the two greatest centers of Islamic power, Baghdad and Damascus, causing a shift of Islamic influence to the Mamluks in Cairo.

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#10 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:53 AM


Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khan's sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Kerait princess who successfully navigated the Mongol politics and arranged for all of her sons to become Mongol leaders. Hulagu's brother Mongke was Great Khan from 1251-1258. Hulagu's mother was a Nestorian Christian, as was Hulagu's wife Dokuz Khatun, and his closest friend and general, Kitbuqa. Hulagu told the Armenian historian Vartan Arewelc'i in 1264 that he had been a Christian since birth. It is recorded however that he resorted to Buddhism as he neared his death, against the will of his Christian wife Dokuz Khatun.[1]

Hulagu had at least three children: Abaqa, second Ilkhan of Persia from 1265-1282, Taraqai, whose son Baydu became Ilkhan in 1295, and Teguder Ahmad, third Ilkhan from 1282-1284.[2]

[edit] Military campaigns
Silver dirham of Hulagu, 1256-1265.Obv: Arabic inscription ﻢﻠﺳﻭﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻪﻠﻟﺍﻰﻠﺻ ﻪﻠﻟﺍﻝﻮﺳﺭ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ﻪﻠﻟﺍﻻﺍﻪﻟﺍﻻ/ La ilahe illallah Muhammed resulullah salallahü aleyhe vesellem: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet", bordered by a Uyghur inscription.Rev: Arabic inscription: ﻥﺎﺧ ﻮﻛﻻﻮﻫ ﻥﺁﺎﻗ ﺎﻜﻜﻧﻮﻣ ﻢﻈﻋﻻﺍ ﻥﺁﺎﻗ/ Kaan'ül azam Mengü kaan Hülagu han, bordered by a Uyghur inscription.
Silver dirham of Hulagu, 1256-1265.
Obv: Arabic inscription ﻢﻠﺳﻭﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻪﻠﻟﺍﻰﻠﺻ ﻪﻠﻟﺍﻝﻮﺳﺭ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ﻪﻠﻟﺍﻻﺍﻪﻟﺍﻻ/ La ilahe illallah Muhammed resulullah salallahü aleyhe vesellem: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet", bordered by a Uyghur inscription.
Rev: Arabic inscription: ﻥﺎﺧ ﻮﻛﻻﻮﻫ ﻥﺁﺎﻗ ﺎﻜﻜﻧﻮﻣ ﻢﻈﻋﻻﺍ ﻥﺁﺎﻗ/ Kaan'ül azam Mengü kaan Hülagu han, bordered by a Uyghur inscription.

In 1255, Great Khan Mongke charged his brother Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. Hulagu's campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs, a people of southern Iran; the destruction of the Hashshashin sect; the submission or destruction of the Abbasid caliphate; the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria; and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt.[3] Mongke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted, and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions.
Hulagu was the first ruler of the Mongol Ilkhanate.
Hulagu was the first ruler of the Mongol Ilkhanate.

Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled – by order of Mongke, one in ten fighting men in the entire empire were gathered for Hulagu's army.[4] He easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins (also known as the Hashshashin) that they surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut to him without a fight.

[edit] Battle of Baghdad (125

Main article: Battle of Baghdad (125

Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad, 1258. Note siege engine in foreground.
Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad, 1258. Note siege engine in foreground.

Hulagu probably always intended to take Baghdad, which the Mongols had been meaning to attack for over ten years (see Eljigidei), but he used the caliph's refusal to send troops to him as a pretext for conquest, since his brother the Great Khan had ordered him to be merciful to those who submitted.

The Mongol army, led by Hulagu Khan and his top general Guo Kan, set out for Baghdad in November of 1257. Hulagu demanded surrender; the caliph refused, warning the Mongols that they faced the wrath of God if they attacked the caliph. Hulagu's forces besieged the city, which then surrendered on February 10, leading to a week-long massacre by the Mongols, regarded as one of the most devastating events in the history of Islam.

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#12 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:56 AM

Conquest of Syria (1260)

Main article: Franco-Mongol alliance
See also: Mongol raids into Palestine

1260 Mongol offensive in the Levant.
1260 Mongol offensive in the Levant.

After Baghdad, in 1260, Mongol forces combined with those of their Christian vassals in the region, such as the army of Cilician Armenia under Hetoum I, and the Franks of Bohemond VI. This force then conquered Muslim Syria, domain of the Ayyubid dynasty. They took together the city of Aleppo, and on March 1, 1260, the Mongols with the Armenians and the Franks of Antioch took Damascus,[5][6] under the Christian Mongol general Kitbuqa.[7] Many historical accounts describe the story that at the capture of Damascus, the three Christian rulers (Hetoum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa) entered the city of Damascus together in triumph, and great Christian celebrations were made. [8][7] However, some modern historians have questioned this story as apocryphal.[9] Mass was celebrated in the Grand Mosque of the Umayyads (the former cathedral of Saint John the Baptist),[10], and numerous mosques were profaned.

This invasion effectively destroyed the Ayyubid Dynasty, theretofore powerful ruler of large parts of the Levant, Egypt and Arabia. The last Ayyubid king An-Nasir Yusuf was killed by Hulagu in 1260.[11] With the Islamic power centers of Baghdad and Damascus gone, the center of Islamic power transferred to the Egyptian Mamluks in Cairo.

After the victory, Hulagu gave numerous gifts to Bohemond VI, including some of the conquered cities, including Lattakieh.[12] But then because of a new internal conflict in Turkestan, Hulagu had to stop the Mongol invasion before it reached Egypt, and departed with the bulk of his forces, leaving only about 10,000 Mongol horsemen in Syria under Kitbuqa to occupy the conquered territory,[13] including Nablus and Gaza in the south, as well as the fortress of Ajlun, east of River Jordan.[14] The Mongols engaged in raids southward towards Egypt, reaching as far as Ascalon and Jerusalem, and a Mongol garrison of about 1,000 was placed in Gaza,[15][16][17] with another garrison located in Naplouse.[18]

The death of Mongke forced Hulagu and most of his army to withdraw. The succession crisis that followed was the most ruinous to date. Indeed, although the succession was finally settled by imprisonment of one of his brothers, and another elevated to Great Khan, (Kublai Khan), the truth is that after 1258 there was no unified Mongol Empire, but four separate kingdoms, including the Il-Khanate of Persia established by Hulagu.

[edit] Battle of Ayn Jalut (1260)

Main article: Battle of Ayn Jalut

The Mamluks took advantage of the weakened state of Kitbuqa's forces, and, negotiating a passive alliance with the Crusaders, were allowed to pass north through Crusader territory, resupplying near the Crusaders' powerbase of Acre, and then engage the remnants of the Mongol army at the Battle of Ayn Jalut. The Mamluks achieved a decisive victory, and established a highwater mark for the Mongol conquest. For the rest of the century, the Mongols would attempt other invasions of Syria, but never be able to hold territory for more than a few months. The border of the Ilkhanate remained at the Tigris for the duration of Hulagu's dynasty.

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#15 [url]

Apr 9 08 8:58 AM

Later campaigns
v • d • e
The Mongol Invasions
Central Asia – Georgia and Armenia – Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend – Bilär) – Rus' – Anatolia (Köse Dağ) – Europe (Legnica – Mohi) – Baghdad – Korea – India – Japan (Bun'ei – Kōan) – Vietnam (Bạch Đằng) – China (Xiangyang – Yamen) – Burma (Ngasaunggyan – Pagan) – Syria – Palestine (Ain Jalut)

Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, after the succession was finally settled with Kublai as the last Great Khan, but instead of being able to avenge his defeats, was drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke. Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Baghdad, and allied himself with the Mamluks.

[edit] 1262 embassy and letter to Louis IX

On April 10, 1262, Hulagu sent through John the Hungarian a new letter to the French king Louis IX, offering again an alliance. The letter explained that two years before, in 1260, Hulagu had to withdraw the bulk of his army from Syria due to the hot weather and the lack of provisions and grass for the horses.[19] The letter mentioned Hulagu's intention to capture Jerusalem for the benefit of the Pope, and asked for Louis to send a fleet against Egypt:

"From the head of the Mongol army, avid to devastate the perfid nation of the Sarasins, goodwilling support of the Christian faith (...) so that you, who are the rulers of the coasts on the other side of the sea, endeavour to deny a refuge for the Infidels, your enemies and ours, by having your subjects diligently patrol the seas."
—Letter from Hulagu to Saint Louis.[20]

It is unclear whether the letter ever reached Louis IX in Paris, as the only known manuscript survived in Vienna, Austria.[21]

Hulagu apparently sent an embassy to "all kings and princes overseas" in 1262 as well. The secretary Rychaldus accompanied the embassy, and made a report about it during the Second Council of Lyon in 1274.[22] However the embassy was apparently intercepted in Sicily by King Manfred, who was allied with the Mamluks and in conflict with Pope Urban IV, and was returned by ship.

When Hulagu massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge Ain Jalut, Berke Khan initiated a series of raids in force led by Nogai Khan which drew Hulagu north to meet him. Hulagu Khan suffered a severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire.

[edit] The Polos
Nicolò and Maffio in Bukhara, where they stayed for three years. They were invited by a envoy of Hulagu (right) to travel east to visit the Great Khan Kubilai.
Nicolò and Maffio in Bukhara, where they stayed for three years. They were invited by a envoy of Hulagu (right) to travel east to visit the Great Khan Kubilai.

Niccolò and Maffeo Polo travelled to the realm of Hulagu and stayed in the city of Bukhara, in modern day Uzbekistan, where the family lived and traded for three years from 1261 to 1264.

In 1264, Nicolò and Maffio joined up with an embassy sent by the Ilkhan Hulagu to his brother, the Grand Khan Kubilai. In 1266, they reached the seat of the Grand Khan in the Mongol capital Khanbaliq, present day Beijing, China.

[edit] Death of Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was buried in the Kaboudi Island in Lake Urmia. His funeral was the only Ilkhanid funeral to feature human sacrifice. He was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line.

The 13th century saw such a vogue of Mongol things in the West that many new-born children in Italy were named after Mongol rulers, including Hulagu: names such as Can Grande ("Great Khan"), Alaone (Hulagu), Argone (Arghun) or Cassano (Ghazan) are recorded.[23]

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#16 [url]

Apr 9 08 12:02 PM

Next to Hattin, this is one of the greatest Moslem victories.
We based a BBDBA game on this battle.....



Visit the wacky world of MrFarrow2U (plus Jack & Amys!)DBA http://mrfarrow2udba.blogspot.com/

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